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Design of Ventilation System for Catering and Kitchen in Large Commercial Plaza
In recent years, with the increasing number of large-scale commercial projects, catering has gradually become an important format in commercial buildings. In order to gather popularity, a commercial complex is equipped with multiple catering, as many as 40-60, accounting for 50% of the total commercial area. The ventilation design of the catering kitchen has become an important factor affecting the quality of the project. So, how to design the ventilation system for the dining kitchen of a large commercial plaza? Let's take a look at the author of the cookware together. 01. Design features of catering and kitchen HVAC system (1) System classification: Most of the facades of the commercial plaza project have curtain walls. Most restaurants have kitchens in the inner area, which are enclosed or inner kitchens, so they need to be divided into local mechanical exhaust ( Oil fume exhaust system, oil fume exhaust air system, comprehensive exhaust air and accident exhaust system, comprehensive air supplement and accident air supplement system. If there is a kitchen where the tenant uses the fume exhaust system, the accident ventilation system must be independently designed. It is recommended that shops with a dining area less than 160m2 have only partial exhaust air. For shops larger than 160m2, local exhaust air must be installed and combined with full exhaust air. The local exhaust air volume is 65% of the calculated air volume, the full exhaust air is 35%, and supplementary air is provided. system. (2) Reserved tube wells: 1) It is recommended to divide according to the area of u200bu200bthe catering. Independent oil fume exhaust pipes should be designed for more than 1000m. A single area of u200bu200bless than 300m or a number of merchants with an area of u200bu200babout 1000m share a common oil fume exhaust well. The ventilation shafts should be arranged in the kitchen area and the positions should be consistent. 2) The cooking fume exhaust in the kitchen needs to be set up with a duct in the civil construction shaft, and the fume exhaust system should not be directly connected to the civil construction air duct. At the same time, open the inspection door on the floor where the oil drain device is installed. 3) For the kitchen air supply system, it is recommended to take the air through the external wall shutters on this floor, and chain control with the exhaust fan; when the external wall air supply conditions are not available, the fresh air shaft can also be used to take air. 4) For supermarkets, reserved pipe wells for oil fume exhaust in the kitchen or processing area should be provided. 5) For the type of business that does not indicate the catering, but reserves the catering function, the area of u200bu200bthe kitchen pipe well shall be reserved. Separate or shared oil fume exhaust pipe wells are reserved at multiple points according to the needs of commercial pipes and electrical machinery. (3) Air volume calculation: 1) Before the commercial management electrical and mechanical demand table is implemented, according to the area of u200bu200bthe shop, the number of air changes of less than 300m2 is calculated according to the number of air changes in the kitchen volume, and the number of air changes in the kitchen volume of 300-1000m2 is calculated according to the number of 60 air changes in the kitchen volume , The area of u200bu200bthe kitchen is calculated as one-third of the area of u200bu200bthe shop, and the net height is calculated as 3m. 2) Chinese kitchen cooking fume: 1/3 of the business area of u200bu200bthe merchant is the kitchen area, the kitchen height is 3 meters, and the number of air changes is 60 times/h. The supplementary air in the kitchen is considered based on 80%~90% of the exhaust air. 02. Issues that need to be coordinated and considered in advance with the commercial management department (1) Design interface: The design institute needs to complete all catering and kitchen fire protection designs and meet the fire protection acceptance requirements. The merchant is responsible for the one-time oil fume exhaust and purification device in the shop. The design institute designs the secondary oil fume treatment after the exhaust hood, installs the oil fume exhaust fan and the oil fume purifier, and the oil fume exhaust and the air supply duct can be laid about 1 meter into the kitchen. (2) Relevant business formats: In the planning stage, some areas of the commercial project need to be designed according to the catering format in terms of air conditioning, oil fume exhaust, ventilation, and gas. For example, with the exception of relatively fixed formats such as cinemas and ice rinks, the design of the top two floors can be reserved for catering conditions. On the lower floors, coordinate with the commercial management to determine the reserved area for catering on each floor. If there are businesses (except supermarkets) on B1F, they will be reserved in priority for catering formats. For catering merchants who have not specified specific functional areas, try to concentrate on setting up kitchens and tube wells in the backyard area of u200bu200bthe shop, and consider the placement of roofing equipment, noise reduction in the later stage and other conditions. 03. Project example and optimization plan Taking a large shopping plaza that the author personally experienced as an example, it is a new urban complex project with a total construction area of u200bu200bnearly 400,000 square meters in a third-tier city. The main optimization target is a 7-storey commercial podium with a building height of 38.4m. Due to the majority of facade curtain walls, in order to reserve landscape dining spaces, some catering formats are located in the outer wall area. The original design directly opened the catering and kitchen exhaust louvers. The facade greatly affected the appearance of the building and the hygienic maintenance of the curtain wall in the later stage. After optimization, the oil fume exhaust pipe was raised from the curtain wall to the roof, and the exhaust fan room reserved on the current floor was cancelled, and the oil fume and purification devices were arranged in a centralized manner On the roof. It not only solves the facade problem, but also saves the available building area, and facilitates the unified maintenance and management of equipment on the roof. After the commercial management format is settled, the catering merchants that have been identified must be re-evaluated on the basis of the original design, especially the area from non-catering to catering (including reserved catering), and then according to the electromechanical demand table Deepen the design, flexibly modify the machine room, tube well, and set up shutters to meet the specifications and use requirements. Summary (1) The kitchen in commercial catering is a very important part, but it is usually a weak link in design. In the construction drawing design stage, the detailed process information about the kitchen is often not available. On the architectural drawings, generally only the area, floor height and position of the stove are the kitchen. Various constraints reduce the accuracy and certainty of the kitchen ventilation design. . (2) The current design codes and standards have clear regulations on the ventilation design of public kitchens in catering. However, in the actual design process, the layout of commercial buildings is more complicated and there are many types of business, especially after the investment invitation is involved in the later period. Many demand increases, decreases or changes, so there are very high requirements for the design calculation of the reserved tube wells in the early stage. (3) It is recommended to explore the design and coordination problems encountered in the process from development to acceptance and delivery in large commercial plazas of similar size and format, sum up experience, and formulate design standards and principles applicable to projects of the same type. Previous: Commercial Kitchen Encyclopedia—Ultrasonic Dishwasher Next: How to choose a commercial dishwasher?